Mr. Trump continued to plead Dr. Jackson’s case well into the midterm season last fall, reserving special ire for Senator Jon Tester, the Montana Democrat who had publicly detailed some of the accusations against Dr. Jackson.

When Dr. Jackson delivered his report on the president’s health last year, the White House was reeling from the publication of “Fire and Fury,” the book by Michael Wolff that described some of Mr. Trump’s advisers questioning his fitness for office.

Among the questions raised about the physical was whether the president would be given any tests devised to detect cognitive impairment. Mr. Trump did undergo such tests, Dr. Jackson said at the time, and received a perfect score.

Where he stood to improve, Dr. Jackson said, was in moderating his sedentary lifestyle and love of sweets. The two men discussed diet and exercise, and a goal was set for the president, who the White House said weighed in at 239 pounds, to lose 10 to 15 of them.

“He’s more enthusiastic about the diet part than the exercise part,” Dr. Jackson said, “but we’re going to do both.”

In the months after the physical, Mr. Trump, a lover of fast food, has made attempts to try lighter fare. Salads, roast chicken and grilled steak have been presented to the president during his lunches and dinners. But Mr. Trump, 72, has not demonstrated any changes to his fitness regime — when he plays a round of golf, one of his few hobbies requiring physical activity, he still relies heavily on golf carts.

Last year, cardiologists who did not treat the president said that Dr. Jackson’s glowing physical report belied what appeared to be looming health conditions. Several outside physicians noted alarmingly high cholesterol levels, even though Dr. Jackson disclosed that Mr. Trump was taking Crestor, a powerful drug used to lower cholesterol.

This year’s physical may reveal whether Mr. Trump’s cholesterol levels are lower, or whether fitness goals were achieved. But in any case, as with any other medical patient — and other presidents — what Mr. Trump ultimately reveals to the public about his health will be up to him.