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A high-level panel commissioned by Mayor Bill de Blasio called on the city to adopt a sweeping measure to address entrenched segregation in education: create diversity targets for all 1,800 schools so that their population reflects the racial and economic makeup of the surrounding areas.

Over the next five years, the panel recommended, elementary and middle schools should reflect the racial makeup of their local school district, and high schools should look as much like their local borough as possible, in terms of race, income level, disability and proficiency in English.

New York’s schools have become increasingly divided along racial lines over the last two decades, and the city is currently home to one of the most segregated urban public school systems in America.

Mr. de. Blasio, now in his second term, ran on a promise to reduce inequality in all aspects of city life. But, when it comes to school segregation, he has been stymied by the same quandary that previous mayors faced: How to redistribute resources so that black and Hispanic students have more access to high-quality schools without alienating middle class, white families.

The group left many implementation details of its plan up to the mayor, though it is expected to release a second, more detailed, report before the end of the school year.

In a statement, Ms. Wiley said the group expects the mayor to execute at least some of its proposals.

“We look forward to the Chancellor’s and Mayor’s commitment to implementing these recommendations and will continue to make more recommendations to support schools that reflect who we are as a city,” she said.

Because of the city’s student demographics, full integration is all but impossible without some kind of transportation plan or the elimination of geographic districts to determine admission, measures the mayor has not supported. But even short of those changes, the group found that many schools can be significantly more integrated than they are today.

The city’s charter schools, which have overwhelmingly black and Hispanic student bodies, should be rewarded for creating diversity goals, according to the report.

One potentially important proposal is the creation of a chief integration officer, who would be responsible for holding schools to diversity targets and would oversee a broader integration effort.

In order to track how close schools are to diversity targets, the report suggests the city annually release the metrics used to judge schools’ integration efforts. The city’s existing school quality reports, which are designed to help parents select schools, should include diversity “as another measure of school performance,” according to the report.

Mr. de Blasio should also focus on integrating schools in neighborhoods that may have wealth disparities and segregated schools, the group said.

The report prompted the mayor to require nine such local school districts, including the Upper East Side, Ditmas Park in Brooklyn, Forest Hills in Queens and all of Staten Island, to come up with integration plans.

Mr. de Blasio should also ask all 32 of the city’s local school districts to consider whether their gifted and talented programs and schools that admit students using academic criteria are causing further segregation, the report suggests.

But the group stopped short of pushing for any citywide mandates that would require parents to choose more diverse schools or school rezonings that would force more racial and economic integration.

Mr. de Blasio has made clear that he wants to avoid mandates on integration, and has said his experience growing up in Cambridge, Mass. during the backlash to busing in Boston has informed that view.

The mayor has taken some incremental steps to boost diversity. Last year, he set aside $2 million to support local parent groups’ efforts to draft their own integration plans, and he has approved a small-scale program for schools to set aside seats for students who are low-income, learning English or otherwise vulnerable.

Several local school districts have already come up with their own integration plans, and a few high-profile rezonings have brought some integration to schools in diverse neighborhoods. The mayor released a preliminary diversity plan in 2017, which included a target to increase the number of students in integrated schools by 50,000 over five years. But researchers found the city was likely to meet the goals in its plan even without any significant action.